Why February became shortest month of the year

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While every month in the calendar contains at least 30 days, February falls short with 28 (and 29 on a leap year). And this is usually blamed on Roman superstitious beliefs.

The first Roman calendar had a glaring difference in structure from its later variants: it consisted of 10 months rather than 12.

In order to fully synchronise the calendar with the lunar year, the Roman Emperor, Numa Pompilius added January and February to the original 10 months.

The previous calendar had 6 months of 30 days and 4 months of 31, for a total of 304 days. However, Numa wanted to avoid having even numbers in his calendar, as Roman superstition at the time held that even numbers were unlucky.

He subtracted a day from each of the 30-day months to make them 29. The lunar year consists of 355 days (354.367 to be exact, but calling it 354 would have made the whole year unlucky!), which meant that he now had 56 days left to work with.

In the end, at least one month out of the 12 needed to contain an even number of days. This is because of a simple mathematical fact: the sum of any even amount (12 months) of odd numbers will always equal an even number—and he wanted the total to be odd. So Numa chose February, a month that would be host to Roman rituals honouring the dead, as the unlucky month to consist of 28 days.

Despite changes in the calendar as it was altered after Numa’s additions—alterations that include the shortening of February at certain intervals, the addition of a leap month, and eventually the modern leap day—February’s 28-day length has stuck.

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